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Azure Multi Node Clusters

There are multiple ways to cluster EJBCA. Before EJBCA Cloud 2.0, the typical approach was to cluster the local Galera nodes with each other. As of EJBCA Cloud version 2.0, you can install directly into an Azure Database for MariaDB servers database. This makes clustering and upgrades more straightforward since the data is a single, centralized source of truth.

Clustering with Azure Database for MariaDB servers

Clustering with an Azure Database for MariaDB servers database is the preferred way to cluster EJBCA. Using the configuration wizard, you can directly install into an Azure Database for MariaDB servers database. This method allows you to point nodes to this new centralized database and load balance between them. For more information, see Clustering with an RDS Database and for instructions on using the configuration wizard, see the AWS Launch Guide.

Clustering with Galera on Local Nodes

The following sections provide information on Galera clustering on local nodes.

Three Node Cluster Information

The cluster implementation used for Galera replication uses regular network connectivity over the main instance interface for all cluster communication. This means that cluster nodes don’t have to be placed physically close to each other as long as they have good network connectivity.

However, this also means that a node cannot distinguish between a node failure of another node and broken network connectivity to the other node. To avoid the situation where the cluster nodes operate independently and get diverging data sets (a split-brain situation), the cluster nodes take a vote and will cease to operate unless they are part of the majority of connected nodes. This ensures that there is only one data set that is allowed to be updated at the time. In the case of a temporary network failure, disconnected nodes can easily synchronize their data to the majority’s data set and continue to operate.

Two Node Clusters

Galera recommends three nodes to avoid a split-brain situation. If only two instances are chosen, which is not recommended, make sure only one of them is getting written to and is a primary while the other is for DR purposes. An arbitrator can also be configured to avoid split brain. For more information, refer to Galera Documentation on Galera Arbitrator.

There is no real high availability in two node clusters. In the event that one of the node leaves the cluster ungracefully it will take the database offline on the remaining node. Two node clusters are more for redundancy than availability and must be manually intervened with to be functional again in the event of a failure.

For more information, refer to Galera Documentation on Two-node Clusters.

High Availability

This setup requires three or more nodes. In case of a node failure, the remaining nodes will still be able to form a cluster through a majority quorum vote and continue to operate.

The first cluster node always has a slightly higher quorum vote than the rest of the nodes. In a setup of an even (4 or more) number of nodes where the nodes are divided over two sites, the site that has the first node will continue to operate if the connectivity between the sites fails.

Continuous Service Availability

To ensure that service clients always connect to an operational node in the cluster, an external load-balancer should be used for automatic fail-over and/or load distribution.

In the case a custom application being developed for consumption of the services provided by EJBCA Enterprise Cloud's external interfaces, this could also be handled by making the custom application connect to any of the nodes that is found to be operational.

If lower availability and manual interaction is acceptable in case of a node failure, this could also be solved by redirecting a DNS name to the service.

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